Integrity Legal

Archive for June, 2009

18th June 2009

Hiring an Immigration attorney is a decision that each couple makes based upon their unique set of circumstances and that decision should be made after careful review and research. That being said, when the decision is made that a US visa lawyer is necessary,  sometimes couples are unwittingly duped into hiring a non-licensed “immigration consultant” or “visa agent.” In even worse situations, the couple believes that they are actually retaining the services of a licensed lawyer when in fact they are dealing with someone who has never completed formal legal training or been licensed to practice law.

Form G-28 is a required form that must be submitted to the United States Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS) when the initial visa application is sent to the USCIS Service Center. Basically, the G-28 puts the United States government officers working at USCIS on notice that an attorney will be representing the petitioner, beneficiary, or (more common in family base cases) both parties. Further, the US Embassy in Bangkok will currently allow attorney’s to present 221g follow up documentation provided a G-28 form has been signed by the Beneficiary and the attorney can produce credentials showing that they are in fact licensed to practice law in at least one United States jurisdiction.

One of the convenient aspects of hiring an attorney from the point of view of the United States Citizen petitioner and the Thai fiancee Beneficiary is the fact that once the attorney enters his or her appearance, then most, if not all correspondence, will be sent to the attorney’s office.

Also, the G-28 acts as a litmus test to determine if the person or organization one is dealing with is an actual attorney or law firm. USCIS has made regulations which stipulate that only attorneys and non-profit organizations are allowed to represent clients in United States Immigration matters. With regard to non-profit organization, these types of institutions are defined as those like the Red Cross or other non-governmental refugee organizations. In circumstances where a “representative” is used who is not a licensed attorney, USCIS has stated that the representative must take little or nothing with regard toa fee. This provision seems truly to have been designed with organizations assisting indigent refugees in mind.

On the G-28 form, the attorney, petitioner, and beneficiary will need to affix their signatures. The attorney will also place his or her state of licensure on the form. In the case of the K-1 visa application, the attorney will also place his or her G-28 number on the form I-129f.

For further information please see:

K1 Visa

K3 Visa

(Please be on Notice: this piece is not intended to be regarded as a substitute for legal advice. Please seek legal advice from a licensed attorney. This post creates no lawyer-client relationship between the parties writing or reading it.)

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17th June 2009

Information swirling around the internet regarding prenuptial agreements can be less than helpful or downright dangerous. One thing to bear in mind is the fact that writing one’s own prenuptial agreement is generally not a wise idea because an attorney understands the legal implications of certain language used in the agreement. Someone without legal training might be unaware of the consequences involved when using or omitting certain key phrases.

There is a rather common misconception that prenuptial agreements will be held inviolate by the courts. This is frankly not true. There are situations where a court will throw out a prenuptial agreement. For this reason, it may be doubly important that professional legal counsel be retained in order to forestall a judicial nullification of an otherwise duly formalized prenuptial agreement.

A misconception of less prevalence in the United States, but perhaps more prevalent in the Kingdom of Thailand is the idea that prenuptial agreements will be automatically thrown out of court. This belief is especially widespread among the British expatriate community in Thailand. Although it is true that British Courts take a dim view regarding prenuptial agreements, there are some instances of the court taking them into account when dividing marital property, but as a rule, they are not generally recognized. That being said, Thai courts will recognize a duly formalized prenuptial agreement and for this reason it is probably prudent for the expat with assets that he wishes to protect in Thailand to register a prenuptial agreement at the time of the Thailand Marriage Registration.

Some people believe that prenuptial agreements can make stipulations regarding child custody. It is an almost universal fact that prenuptial agreements that make provisions for child custody, particularly with regard to as-yet unborn children, will be thrown out of court, because it is the Court’s duty to make decisions regarding the child based upon the best interests of that child.

In most jurisdictions in the United States provisions can be made that will limit spousal maintenance should their be a dissolution. In any case involving the waiver of maintenance rights, it is prudent to have an independent attorney explain the agreement to the non-drafting fiancee. This forestalls the agreement being thrown out because the fiancee was ignorant of the agreements provisions at the time she signed it. Further it may be wise, depending upon the situation, to have the prenuptial agreement signed ad then let an interval of time pass before Thai marriage registration.

(Please be on notice: this post is not a satisfactory substitute for competent legal advice from an attorney. No attorney-client relationship is created between author and reader.)

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16th June 2009

The White House has been under increasing pressure since Obama’s inauguration to provide equal benefits to same sex couples under United States law. Recently Hillary Clinton reversed previous State Department policy by providing same sex partners of State Department employees with most of the benefits extended to different sex couples (including diplomatic passports for partners).

From the Associated Press: “President Barack Obama, under growing criticism for not seeking to end the ban on openly gay men and women in the military, is extending benefits to same-sex partners of federal employees.”

The question is: will Obama go further in extending benefits to same-sex couples? Specifically, does Obama feel that this gesture is enough to placate the Gay community or will he go further in fulfilling the campaign promises calling for greater equality?

Of particular importance from an Immigration perspective: will the Uniting American Families Act be passed? This law would provide equalized immigration benefits for same-sex couples. Under the Defense of Marriage Act same sex couples are barred from receiving many of the immigration benefits accorded to different sex couples.

The feeling of many American Immigration Lawyers is that UAFA, or some bill similar to the UAFA, will eventually become law. The question is: when?

Hopefully for these families who are being kept apart by Immigration restrictions the UAFA will pass sooner rather than later. The task now is to keep pressure on politicians to pass the legislation. Many believe that Comprehensive Immigration Reform will have some sort of UAFA-like provision rolled into it. This would probably be the most expedient way of dealing with the same-sex immigration situation. However, there is the possibility that a concession such as adding “permanent partner” to the list of those eligible for family immigration benefits, as called for in UAFA, could be cast aside in a committee room or in back room “horse trading” in an effort to save CIR.

The fate of the Uniting American Families Act remains to be seen, but hopefully this legislation will pass. Until the day it is signed into law, no one can say for sure if same-sex immigration benefits will ever be granted

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16th June 2009

The whole point of obtaining a K1 visa is to allow the Thai fiancee a 90 day visit after traveling to the United States in order to ultimately get married. Should the couple opt not to marry, then the Thai fiancee will need to depart the country before the 90 day visa validity expires.

For those couples applying for an Immigrant Spouse Visa (CR-1 or IR-1) or a K-3 Visa, the marriage should already have taken place as the legal marriage acts as the foundation upon which the visa application is based.

That being stated, unlike Thailand, where marriage registration is a uniform process that essentially involves a trip to the local Amphur office for execution, in America the marriage procedures differ depending upon the state. Also, some states require the couple obtain a marriage license and wait a statutorily prescribed period before marriage. For the convenience of those reading this blog, here is a state by state list of rules regarding US marriage.

Blood Test and Marriage License Requirements by State

State Blood tests required Waiting period between applying for and receiving license How soon you can marry after receiving license When license expires
Alabama No None Immediately 30 days
Alaska No 3 days Immediately 3 months
Arizona No None Immediately 1 year
Arkansas No None Immediately No provision
California No None Immediately 90 days
Colorado No None Immediately 30 days
Connecticut Yes None Immediately 65 days
Delaware No None 24 hours; 96 hours if both spouses are nonresidents 30 days
District of Columbia Yes 3 days Immediately No provision
Florida No 3 days unless couple attends marriage preparation class Immediately 60 days
Georgia No None Immediately No provision
Hawaii No None Immediately 30 days
Idaho No None Immediately No provision
Illinois No None 1 day 60 days
Indiana Yes None Immediately 60 days
Iowa No 3 days Immediately No provision
Kansas No 3 days Immediately 6 months
Kentucky No None Immediately 30 days
Louisiana No None 3 days 30 days
Maine No 3 days Immediately 90 days
Maryland No None 2 days 6 months
Massachusetts Yes 3 days Immediately 60 days
Michigan No 3 days Immediately 33 days
Minnesota No 5 days Immediately 6 months
Mississippi Yes 3 days Immediately No provision
Missouri No 3 days Immediately 30 days
Montana Yes None Immediately 180 days
Nebraska No None Immediately 1 year
Nevada No None Immediately 1 year
New Hampshire No 3 days Immediately 90 days
New Jersey No 72 hours Immediately 30 days
New Mexico No None Immediately No provision
New York No None 24 hours 60 days
North Carolina No None Immediately 60 days
North Dakota No None Immediately 60 days
Ohio No None Immediately 60 days
Oklahoma Yes None Immediately 30 days
Oregon No 3 days Immediately 60 days
Pennsylvania No 3 days Immediately 60 days
Rhode Island No None Immediately 3 months
South Carolina No 24 hours Immediately No provision
South Dakota No None Immediately 20 days
Tennessee No None Immediately 30 days
Texas No None 3 days 31 days
Utah No None Immediately 30 days
Vermont No None Immediately 60 days
Virginia No None Immediately 60 days
Washington No 3 days Immediately 60 days
West Virginia No None Immediately 60 days
Wisconsin No 5 days Immediately 30 days
Wyoming No None Immediately No provision

One should bear in mind that upon marriage in the USA, the US Citizen should petition for adjustment of status for his new Thai wife.

For more about the above chart please click here

Please be advised that the above is an improper substitute for personal one-to-one legal advice from an attorney. No attorney client relationship is formed between the reader and the author.

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15th June 2009

For many Americans the Tourist visa is the travel document that comes to mind when discussing US Immigration. For Immigration based upon a family relationship the Tourist Visa is the worst option when an American Citizen spouse or Fiance is seeking to bring the foreign fiancee or spouse to the USA in order to remain.

One of the main reasons why the tourist visa is not an option that should be contemplated when making family immigration decisions stems from the fact that the purpose of the US tourist visa is misunderstood and the visa itself has been greatly misused in the past. A US Visitor Visa is intended for short term recreational purposes only. Similarly the US business visa is meant for short term business endeavors in the USA (conferences, trade shows, etc.) Neither are designed for use by those who seek to have their loved one remain in the USA permanently.

Consular officers making a judgment call on a US visitor visa must be convinced that the applicant has overcome the statutory presumption of immigrant intent. This doctrine stipulates that the applicant for a tourist visa is a presumed immigrant until they can demonstrate that they are strongly connected to a place outside of the USA. So connected, in fact, that they are more likely to leave the United States in order to return to that location than they would be to remain in the United States past their visa expiration.

A major misconception regarding practically any visa is the idea that it confers a “right” to enter the United States of America. In reality, the visa confers a right to present themselves at the border and upon inspection and approval from the Immigration officer, be admitted to the United States. Even at a United States port of entry, it is possible for the traveler to be turned away if the Immigration officer feels it is necessary. As a practical matter, this rarely occurs due to the fact that most entrants to the USA have a legitimate reason for entry.

Since September 11, 2001 US Immigration officials have been more zealous in their enforcement of US Immigration rules and regulations and as a result the scrutiny placed upon entrants to the US, whether they intend to immigrate or not, has increased.

Due to the fact that the US tourist visa is intended for non-immigrant purposes and the fact that scrutiny of non-immigrants to the US has increased. It is now highly advisable that those wishing to bring a loved one to the USA use the proper travel document. For those seeking to bring a loved one that they are not married to, a K-1 visa may be an appropriate option. While those with an overseas wife might opt for the K-3 visa, CR-1 Visa, or IR-1 Visa depending upon the couple’s circumstances and immigration goals.

Be advised that entering the USA on a visitor visa with anything other than NON-immigrant intent, could be viewed as an attempt to defraud immigration officials and lead to criminal or civil penalties as well as a possible later finding of inadmissibility. If deemed inadmissible, one can only be admitted to the USA after application for a waiver.

(Please note: this post is not a substitute for legal advice. For proper legal advice seek the counsel of a licensed attorney. No part of this piece should be construed as forming an Attorney-client relationship between author and reader.)

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14th June 2009

The K-3 Visa is a bit of an anomaly in United States Immigration law because it was created as something of a “band aid” and has since become somewhat misunderstood.

The K-3 was originally devised as a “fast track,” visa for those wishing to bring their foreign spouse into the United States. The reason a “fast track,” option was necessary was due in part to the fact that classic Immigrant visa petitions for spouse’s of American Citizens (CR-1, IR-1) were taking as long as three to four years to adjudicate because of the tremendously large backlog of cases at what was then known as the Immigration and Naturalization Service (now United States Citizenship and Immigration Service) . The collective frustration with immigrant visa processing lead to the K-3′s birth.

K-3 Visa Application (s)

In order to file for a K-3 visa one must first file for a traditional marriage visa (IR-1/CR-1). This necessitates the submission of an I-130 application. The I-130 will be sent to the proper United States Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS) office for adjudication.  Then the USCIS office will send the petitioner or his visa lawyer a document known as Notice of Action 1 (NOA1). The Notice of Action 1 is simply a receipt from USCIS formally acknowledging the petition’s submission.

Once the Notice of Action 1 is received the petitioner and beneficiary have the option of submitting a supplemental immigration petition with the USCIS service center that has jurisdiction over the petitioner’s state of residence. When initially promulgated there were questions regarding what form should be used when petitioning for the K-3. It was eventually decided that in the interests of efficiency and ease the I-129 f petition (usually used as the K-1 visa application) would be used as the supplemental application form for the K-3 visa.

A second Notice of Action 1 will be sent out to either the visa lawyer or the petitioner putting the party on notice that the case was received.

K-3 Visa Application: Processing Time

In order to calculate the processing time for the K-3 application one must first ascertain how long it will take to get the initial I-130 application filed. Then, calculate the wait time before receiving Notice of Action 1 plus the actual adjudication time of the I-129f. Usually, the K-3 takes slightly longer to process than the K-1 visa and slightly less time to process than the Immigrant visas (CR-1 or IR-1). For unmarried couples, it may be advisable to seek a K-1 or CR-1 visa rather than the K-3. However, depending upon what Embassy the couple would prefer to use for consular processing, the K-3 could have some strategic advantages.

(Note: This post is not a substitute for proper legal advice from an attorney. Further, no attorney-client relatioship is created between author and reader.)

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14th June 2009

A question on the lips of any Thai-American couple when first making the decision to immigrate to the United States is: “how long is this process going to take?” This is a question that can have many different answers depending upon the couple’s situation, visa category, and the processing center that will adjudicate the petition.

Visa Processing Times By Visa Category

The category of visa can have a crucial bearing upon how long it will take to process the visa application. This would seem to be due to the fact that more people tend to apply for certain visa categories, while others are requested less often.

A case in point, far more Immigrant visa applications are submitted than K-3 visa applications. This may be due to the fact that the immigrant visas confer a Green Card or because a K-3 visa application  requires a second petition. Some visa categories may take longer to process because there is heightened scrutiny of the visa application during its adjudication.

This author believes that Immigrant visas, also known as CR-1 or IR-1 visas, which confer permanent residence are scrutinized more carefully because of the privileges attached to the visa. An IR-1 visa beneficiary enters the USA with unconditional lawful permanent residence, the IR-1 beneficiary may remain in the USA indefinitely, provided he or she does not commit some sort of act that results in deportation.  Compare this scenario with a K-1 visa application where the visa ultimately obtained will only entitle the beneficiary to 90 days in the USA and require a further adjustment of status application and one can begin to understand why the applications for the K-1 visa seem to process faster.

The following are processing times for US Family based visas (K-1, K-2, K-3, K-4, and Immigrant Visas) submitted to the Vermont Service Center :

I-129F Petition for Alien Fiance(e) K-1/K-2 – Not yet married – fiance and/or dependent child 6 Months
I-129F Petition for Alien Fiance(e) K-3/K-4 – Already married – spouse and/or dependent child 6 Months
I-130 Petition for Alien Relative U.S. citizen filing for a spouse, parent, or child under 21 6 Months
I-130 Petition for Alien Relative U.S. citizen filing for an unmarried son or daughter over 21 July 02, 2006
I-130 Petition for Alien Relative U.S. citizen filing for a married son or daughter over 21 June 04, 2006
I-130 Petition for Alien Relative U.S. citizen filing for a brother or sister February 25, 2001
I-130 Petition for Alien Relative Permanent resident filling for a spouse or child under 21 January 18, 2006
I-130 Petition for Alien Relative Permanent resident filling for an unmarried son or daughter over 21 June 04, 2006
I-131 Application for Travel Document All other applicants for advance parole 3 Months

For more processing times garnered from the source of these estimates please click here

The following are processing times for US Family based visas (K-1, K-2, K-3, K-4, and Immigrant Visas) being processed at the California  Service Center:

I-129F Petition for Alien Fiance(e) K-1/K-2 – Not yet married – fiance and/or dependent child 6 Months
I-129F Petition for Alien Fiance(e) K-3/K-4 – Already married – spouse and/or dependent child 6 Months
I-130 Petition for Alien Relative U.S. citizen filing for a spouse, parent, or child under 21 6 Months
I-130 Petition for Alien Relative U.S. citizen filing for an unmarried son or daughter over 21 September 22, 2003
I-130 Petition for Alien Relative U.S. citizen filing for a married son or daughter over 21 September 08, 2001
I-130 Petition for Alien Relative U.S. citizen filing for a brother or sister June 08, 1999
I-130 Petition for Alien Relative Permanent resident filling for a spouse or child under 21 October 08, 2005
I-130 Petition for Alien Relative Permanent resident filling for an unmarried son or daughter over 21 November 15, 2001
I-131 Application for Travel Document All other applicants for advance parole 3 Months

For more processing times garnered from the source of this information please click here

All of the above processing estimates are an accurate, but approximate, depiction of USCIS processing times at the time of this writing. As a practical matter, USCIS seems to take more time for adjudication of some of the categories mentioned above than for others. Further it should be noted that the US Embassy in Thailand and the National Visa Center can add time to these estimates if they are processing large caseloads. For more specific information regarding visa cases filed at a USCIS service center and being processed at the American Embassy in Thailand please contact [email protected].

Expatriates living in Thailand may be able to file a visa petition at the USCIS office in Bangkok. By doing so, the processing time estimates are different in comparison to filing in the USA. Generally, when one petitions for an immigrant visa locally, they can expect to obtain that visa in much less time than those compelled to file in the USA.

(Please be advised: Nothing in this post should be construed as mean for any other purpose than providing educational information. Therefore, this post is no substitute for one-on-one legal advice from a licensed attorney. No lawyer-client fiduciary relationship is created between the author and any reader of this post.)

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12th June 2009

Many prospective clients are curious as to the status of a child born to a bi-national couple.  The most common situation we see in Thailand is a couple who has a Thai-American child and the child has dual nationality and is thus entitled to dual citizenship.  However, there are some interesting situations regarding nationality and having done research on this issue I decided to write this brief post in order to disseminate some of the nationality and citizenship rules out there.

US Nationality

A major misconceived notion among American is the idea that an American always transmits his or her citizenship on to his child automatically. This is not necessarily the case. United States Nationality law says:

“For persons born on or after November 14, 1986, a person is a U.S. citizen if all of the following are true

  1. One of the person’s parents was a U.S. citizen when the person in question was born;
  2. The citizen parent lived at least 5 years in the United States before his or her child’s birth;
  3. A minimum of 2 of these 5 years in the United States were after the citizen parent’s 14th birthday.”

Therefore, if the United States Citizen parent does not meet this criteria, then the child could be born without US citizenship. That being said, it would be possible to file an I-130 application for a Permanent Resident Visa and upon entry into the USA, the child becomes a Citizen by operation of law.

Irish Citizenship by Marriage

There was a time when the spouse of an Irish Citizen could acquire Irish Citizenship by declaration after marriage. This was once a matter of right, but this law is no longer in effect and thus a couple now must comply with new regulations in order to obtain an Irish passport for a foreign spouse.

Citizenship by Marriage

In an effort to end “marriages of convenience,”  i.e. marriage executed solely to obtain another person’s citizenship, many countries throughout the world have repealed laws that allow foreign nationals to obtain citizenship simply by marriage. Two notable exceptions to this are Tuvalu and Barbados, but Barbados only allows this if a Barbadian man marries a foreign woman, seemingly if the genders of the couples are reversed, then the Barbadian nationality does not transmit upon marriage.

Asian Countries That Do Not Allow Dual Citizenship

Japan and Korea expressly prohibit their citizens from holding dual nationality. In cases where a child is born to parents of differing nationality, the child is generally required to choose one of the two nationalities by a statutorily specified age.

Dual Citizenship and Thailand

Thailand does not expressly prohibit dual nationality, but the attitude toward those holding two passports is somewhat less than enthusiastic. In cases of a Luk Krueng or half-Thai child, the Thai nationality will likely transmit to the child. If the foreign parent is a US Citizen and meets the criteria above, then the child would also be born with American nationality. Thus the child would be truly Thai-American.

(Please note: Nothing in this article should be used in place of legal advice. Particularly in the area of nationality law, rules and codes change over time so information that was once true, might later prove false. Therefore, it is wise to retain the services of an attorney in the country one wishes to the obtain nationality of. Nothing in this piece should be viewed as creating an attorney-client relationship between author and writer.)

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11th June 2009

In most cases where a US Marriage Visa is involved the couple does not need to concern themselves with the issue of adjustment of status. That being said, the K-3 visa is an exception because it is a non-immigrant visa.

One should not mistake “adjustment of status” for “change of status.” “Change of Status” only applies to persons transitioning from one non-immigrant visa category to another non-immigrant visa category. In the case of a transition from a non-immigrant to an immigrant visa cateogry, the proper term of art is “adjustment of status.”

The K-3 visa is a bit of an odd category because it requires two underlying USCIS petitions: the classic I-130 and the supplemental I-129f (usually reserved for K-1 visas).  A result of these dual applications is that an alien beneficiary spouse has the option of either adjusting status in the United States or returning to her home country for interview and Immigrant Visa conferral.

Some clients opt to adjust a Thai spouse’s status in the United States, while others take the position that returning home for the interview is more pleasant. The K-3 Visa lasts for two years, therefore many Thai beneficiaries use what could otherwise be the adjustment phase of the process to return home to Thailand in order to see family while at the same time finalizing the Immigrant visa process at the US Embassy in Thailand.

Should the foreign bride decide to adjust status stateside, then the process is similar to the adjustment of status process for a fiance visa. Upon approval of the Adjustment application, the K-3 visa beneficiary will be given lawful permanent residence.

There was a time when K-3 visas could be granted with a duration of up to ten years. Due to adjustment issues it seems Embassies stopped issuing these visas with 10 year validity. The reason may stem from the fact that government officials may have decided it was inefficient to let the I-130 petitions languish at Embassies abroad while the spouse of a US Citizen enjoyed a 10 year visa. Another issue could be that a US Citizen spouse dying could leave the foreign spouse stranded from an immigration standpoint because the K-3 is a non-immigrant visa category and the US Citizen’s death could result in precluding the foreign spouse from obtaining permanent residence based upon the marriage to the now deceased spouse. For these reasons, it may be prudent to submit an application for adjustment of status as soon as the beneficiary enters the USA on a K-3.

(Nothing herein should be assumed to act as a substitute for legal advice from a competent licensed attorney. No attorney-client relationship is created by reading this blog post.)

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11th June 2009

Adjustment of status is necessary after a beneficiary enters the USA and marries the K-1 visa petitioner. Adjustment of Status requires the filing of an I-485 application.

The Difference between “Adjustment of Status” and “Change of Status”

Many people going through the travails of Immigration procedure confuse “adjustment of status,” with “change of status.” In common vernacular the terms are similar, if not synonymous. However, in the context of US Immigration they have different meanings entirely.  If an alien adjusts status, this means that the alien changes from a non-immigrant visa category to an Immigrant visa category and is therefore accorded Lawful Permanent Residence (a Green Card). If a person present in the USA “changes status,” this means that they convert from one non-immigrant visa category to another.

K-1 Visas and Adjustment

As a hybrid visa, the K-1 allows an alien to enter the USA with the intent to marry an American and obtain a
Green Card. While the Green Card application is pending, the alien spouse is permitted to stay stateside. In fact, the alien spouse should not subsequently depart the US without first getting an advance parole travel document. Failure to obtain advance parole will very likely result in a K-1 visa conferee’s petition being canceled.

Provided the alien fiancee remains in status in the United States and the Adjustment of Status is approved, then lawful permanent residence will be conferred. This permanent residence will be conditional for 2 years. 3 months prior to the 2nd anniversary of adjustment, the couple should file for an I-751 removal of conditions of residence in the United States. After the removal of conditions occurs the alien will able to remain a resident unconditionally.

Appeals of Negative Adjustment of Status Decisions

In a situation where the adjustment of status from K-1 to Lawful Permanent Residence has not been approved, the decision can be appealed. Also appeals can be made pursuant to Section 586 of Public Law 106-429 if the appellant meets the requirements set forth in the rules.  Any appeal of an adverse adjustment ruling should be submitted to the Administrative Appeals Unit (AAU) for review. As a general rule, the applicant who has been denied adjustment must appeal within Thirty-Three days of the Immigration Judge’s ruling. Upon receipt of the appeal application and remittance of processing fee the appeal is forwarded to the Board of Immigration Appeals in the US Capital for review and adjudication.

(It should be noted that an appeal should not be confused with a waiver. In cases where a legal ground of inadmissibility is found to exist, the consular officer’s decision is not subject to appeal, but instead a waiver may be obtained.)

Nothing Contained herein should be viewed  as a substitute for legal advice from a licensed professional. Obligations inherent to an attorney-client relationship are not to be assumed to arise simply from reading this post due to the fact that no such relationship exists between the author and reader.

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